Water & Hygiene

Water & Hygiene
PAFDESO takes a comprehensive approach to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) by coupling infrastructure development, community mobilization, private sector engagement and behavior change communications to improve sanitation and hygiene practices. We work closely with regional governments and communities to address the full life-cycle costs and risks associated with water and sanitation investments and water quality monitoring.

Strong local partnerships ensure the long-term sustainability of solutions that are equitable, environmentally sound and well-suited to the specific needs of each community. Community engagement is key in all of our WASH programming, and Global Communities employs internationally-recognized and locally-adapted methodologies such as Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) to create demand for WASH goods and services. Leveraging local knowledge and interest developed during the demand creation process, Global Communities works to support WASH product supply by training WASH entrepreneurs and connecting communities to markets and financing.

The Video below is with one of the IDPs in Sool region having a conversation with Pafdeso Chairman Mr Boos in it she is talking about the hardship they have to go through to get water,

Please watch it and share.

Country Water Analysis

Water is one of the primary driving forces for sustainable development of any country. Being located in an extremely water-scarce area, the environmental, social and economic development of Somaliland is to a large extent dependent on improved water security through effective management of water resources. Water resources in Somaliland are limited both in quantity and quality, with frequent droughts and floods further worsening the water security situation in the country. A lot still needs to be done in the rural populations to be able to meet the Millennium Development Goal 7 Target 10, “to reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water.”

Camels are mainly dairy animals in Somalia although there are no data on production. Camels are also used as pack animals when moving camps and to a limited extent in commercial transport. Due to its special features it can transverse arid and semi-arid areas during dry period going without water for several days. Young camels have a tender meat that is delicious and enjoyed by many Somalis.

The meat is offered for sell in most Somali restaurants located in major towns at a high cost compared to goats and sheep. Traditionally, it is animal of social prestige among the Somalis and the more you have the higher you are in the social strata. The hides of the camel are exported to Asian countries such as Singapore, Hong Kong among others and it generates foreign currency for the both Somaliland. The year 2010 marked a milestone in Somalia’s livestock history as the country exported 4.3 million livestock, the highest figure ever recorded. Though this figure includes animals from southern Ethiopia and Djibouti, this makes Somalia’s livestock sector the largest contributor to most of the citizens’ livelihoods.Unsafe water can lead to disease outbreaks, which are difficult to control considering the limited health facilities and services available to pastoralists and agro-pastoralists living in rural Somaliland. In agro-pastoral communities, while people may or may not understand the health hazards posed by consumption of dirty water, they lack obvious mechanisms for improving the quality of water they consume. There is also a general perception that disease and death are pre-determined and unavoidable. Most communities have little knowledge of water-related diseases and modes of transmission, hence awareness training is required. The most common water-related diseases are diarrhea (especially in children under five years), typhoid, malaria and trachoma, common amongst people living in the vicinity of springs.

Leaving a gap between the berkad wall and the soil, then backfilling with stone chips is another strategy GRC have adopted to prevent wall cracks due to pressure from soil and plant roots. Building stones are dressed on both sides to reduce plastering costs. Much berkad rehabilitation work has been undertaken since 1992. Mink (2007) estimated the cost of constructing a berkad at 1 500 – 3 000 USD depending on size and construction material. The cost of rehabilitating one berkad is estimated to be between 1 200 – 2 000 USD, depending on the nature of the repair. Some organizations reported to be working on berkad rehabilitation are OXFAM, SWISS Group – Caritas, UNHCR, COOPI, ActionAid, Action Hamber and GRC. However, the rate of berkad failure is still high and more interventions are needed to cope with the situation. The use of berkads as water sources however, has associated sanitary problems. Water in berkads is easily contaminated, especially in rural areas where sanitary facilities are poor. Human and animal waste contributes to the contamination. In some berkads visited, water was found to be yellow-brown in colour. Berkads are also breeding grounds for mosquitoes. Dams are other surface water sources used in Somaliland. They range in size from small harvesting balleys and wars to big earth dams of capacity up to 150 000 m3. Six high capacity earth dams were built in rural Somaliland in the 1980s. Construction was funded by the World Bank to supply water for pastoralists along the Somalia – Ethiopia border. The dams had generator rooms, attendant rooms, animal troughs and kiosks. At present three of these dams are operational. Smaller capacity dams are also constructed, mainly by NGOs (see Figure 4.3) to boost water supply in rural areas. Water quality is to a large extent dependent on the type of water source. Open sources such as berkads, dams and shallow wells have a high possibility of water contamination from the surrounding environment. Interviews conducted confirmed that there are many berkads and dams where animals and humans obtain water direct from source, further increasing contamination risks from faecal bacteria. Internationally, there are acceptable standards for water requirements for basic needs, commonly referred to as Basic Water Requirement (BWR). This defines water requirements in terms of quantity and quality for the four basic needs of drinking water; human hygiene; sanitation services; and modest household needs. The main economic water use in the country is livestock production. However, small-scale irrigation is also practiced in selected areas, mainly for horticultural products. Domestic consumption is also significant, especially in the dry season when water is very scarce. In the succeeding chapters, major surface and sub-surface water sources in Somaliland are discussed